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Chinese Grammar: An impressive and formal way to express cause and effect with 由于;因此;由于 ... 因此

Do you guys still remember what we’ve learned with 因为 ... 所以 to express cause and effect? Let see a more complicated way, but a more impressive and formal way to express cause and effect!

Using 由于 to express the cause

Of course, you can use 因为,but you can also use this one: 由于 “due to” or “owing to”. 由于 is a more formal way of expressing the cause. In comparison, you'll use 因为 more in the spoken language.


由于 + Cause, Effect


由于 大雾 航班 取消
Your flight was canceled due to the thick fog.

由于 意见 不一 起来
The two of them started to quarrel due to their contrasting opinions.

由于 家里 有点 今天 不能
I can't go today; I need to take care of a family matter.

Using 因此 to express the effect

You already know 所以 for expressing effect.

In writing, if you want to say "so", "therefore" or "because of it", then you can use 因此 too. It will appear more formal.


Cause + 因此 + Effect


昨天 生病 因此 开会
She was sick yesterday so she didn't attend the meeting.

早上 闹铃 因此 赶上 公交车
My alarm clock didn't ring this morning, because of this I missed my bus.

没有 时间因此 电影
He didn’t have time; therefore he didn’t go watch the film.


The pattern 由于...因此 is a causative relation in a subordinate complex sentence. Just like the fixed form of 因为 ... 所以, 因此 is a fixed form structure with 由于. Again here, 由于...因此 is used for writing.

Pay attention here, you can use 所以 with 由于 but you cannot use 因此 with 因为

For example:

He studied hard for the exam, and as a result, he performed well on it. 由于 学习 努力因此 / 所以 考试 得很 。—> Good 因为 学习 努力因此 考试 得很 。—> wrong

因为 can only use with 所以


由于 + Cause + 因此 / 所以 + Effect]


由于 路上 堵车所以 上班 迟到
I arrived late at work because of the traffic.  

由于 学习 努力因此 考试 得很
He studied hard for the exam and then performed well on it (as a result).

由于 非常 负责因此 大家 尊敬
He is very conscientious, so all the people respect him.

早上 闹铃 因此 赶上 公交车
My alarm clock didn't ring this morning, so I missed my bus.

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